One of the golden rules of biology is that diversity is always encouraged by different mechanisms and that life always finds a way to maintain vitality and biodiversity. We see the best examples of this in organisms that have adapted to very difficult conditions. While the evolution process ensures the survival of organisms that can adapt to different environmental conditions and produce more new generations, similar dynamics have also been effective in the cellular world. The interactions among food sources, toxins, carcinogens, and many other factors are indispensable elements of the external world and they have significant impacts on cellular regulation. Some of the environmental factors have the potential to directly alter the DNA sequence while some of them can also induce epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. On the one hand, molecular evolution enables DNA to develop mechanisms that allow it to protect itself from change, on the other hand, it triggers biodiversity with genetic and epigenetic modifications. Recent studies have shown that the genome is highly dynamic and interacts more with external factors than previously thought. In this context, one of the most basic activities in an organism is nutrition. It is a long-known fact that different nutrients cause significant changes in the level of metabolism. However, the knowledge that nutrients or additives can cause differences in genetic characteristics has led to the opening of a new era. Epigenetic mechanisms cause significant changes in gene expression and protein levels in many vital pathways for the organism. Post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation mechanisms make the genome a much more dynamic structure at both DNA and RNA levels. The fact that these mechanisms are actually conserved for many organisms shows how important they are at the evolutionary level. This presentation focuses on genetic alterations led by nutritional changes, the interaction between genetic characters and nutritional status, the evolution of corresponding genetic mechanisms, limitations in experimental designs, and controversial results.
Audience Take Away:
- Recent findings from the studies on the role of feed supplements regarding molecular aspects.
- Evolutionary aspects of the epigenetic modifications related to nutrition.
- The limitations of in vivo studies on the effects of feed supplements on genetic alterations.
- The genetic structure and nutritional dynamics.
- The advances and controversies about nutrigenomics from molecular nutrition to the prevention of disease.