Plant-based or plant-forward eating patterns emphasise plant-based foods. This includes nuts, seeds, oils, whole grains, legumes, and beans, in addition to fruits and vegetables. Plant-based eating patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet and a vegetarian diet, have been the subject of a lot of nutrition research. The Mediterranean diet is based on plant-based cuisine, with occasional additions of fish, chicken, eggs, cheese, and yoghurt, as well as meats and desserts. In both large population studies and randomised clinical trials, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, certain cancers (specifically colon, breast, and prostate cancer), depression, and frailty in older adults, as well as better mental and physical function. Surprisingly, studies on longevity, ageing, and health span reveal cellular, molecular evidence in favour of dietary intervention in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. A plant-based diet is a feasible way to impose dietary restriction and may have a good impact on a number of metabolic pathways that are now being studied pharmacologically due to their potential health advantages in humans.